As a cultural activity, technology predates both science and engineering, each of which formalize some aspects of technological endeavor.
Engineering is the goal-oriented process of designing and making tools and systems to exploit natural phenomena for practical human means, often (but not always) using results and techniques from science.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it.
Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition.
Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings.
The use of the term "technology" has changed significantly over the last 200 years.More recently, scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self (techniques de soi).Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions."State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field.Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is known.The development of technology may draw upon many fields of knowledge, including scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical knowledge, to achieve some practical result.