Many of these civilizations resisted the arrival of European colonizers, who began to seek out South America in the year 1494.
The resistance to colonization shown by the Mapuche resulted in the Arauco War, which lasted from the years 15 and is known as one of the longest wars to ever occur in history.
From this agrarian society, early civilizations were born.
It was the approval of the Treaty of Tordesillas that led European explorers to South America.
Some of these early cultures included the Chavín, the Norte Chico, the Moche, the Nazca and the Paracas.
In later decades, societies such as that of the Incha civilization and the Mapuche, which actually refers to a diverse group of indigenous residents who lived in what is today known as Argentina and Chile.
As a way to fill the gap in the (forced) workforce in places like mines, factories, and plantations, enslaved people from Africa were brought over by colonies predominantly controlled by French, Portuguese, and Spanish settlers.
The number of enslaved people brought over from Africa to South America during this time is estimated to be around five million.